Abstract. Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a common, highly contagious equid respiratory disease. Historically, EIV outbreaks have caused high levels of equine illness and economic damage. Outbreaks have occurred worldwide in the past decade.
What causes Rhinopneumonitis in horses?
Equine rhinopneumonitis or Equine viral abortion is caused by infection with equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV1) which causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, neonatal mortality and occasionally encephalomyelitis in horses and donkeys. EHV1 occurs world-wide, in all countries with significant horse industries.
How is equine influenza transmitted?
Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease with a high rate of transmission among horses and a short incubation time (1-3 days). It is spread by infected, coughing horses, contaminated buckets, brushes, tack, etc.
Is there a vaccine for EHV 1?
While there are several vaccines available for protection against both respiratory disease and abortion as a result of EHV-1 infection, at this time there is no equine licensed vaccine that has a label claim for protection against neurologic disease (EHM).
How often should a horse be vaccinated for equine influenza?
Annual boosters are required thereafter (must be given within 365 days of previous injection). However, following the Equine Influenza outbreak in 2019, many regulatory bodies and competition centres require that horses have 6 monthly boosters, to reduce the risk of transmission at large events.
What are the first signs of strangles in horses?
What are the signs of Strangles?
- Loss of appetite/ Difficulty eating.
- Raised temperature.
- Nasal discharge, often thick and yellow (purulent or pus like).
- Swollen lymph nodes (glands) around the throat.
- Drainage of pus from the lymph nodes around the jaw.
What is Rhino flu in horses?
Equine Respiratory Herpesvirus. What is Viral Rhinopneumonitis, or “Rhino”? Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) are highly contagious pathogens responsible for a variety of symptoms in horses including mild to moderate respiratory disease, fever, poor appetite, and depression.
What is the most common disease in horses?
- Common Equine Diseases. …
- Equine Influenza (“Flu”) …
- Rhinopneumonitis/Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) …
- Equine Encephalomyelitis (“Sleeping Sickness”) …
- Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIA) …
- West Nile Virus. …
- Streptococcus equi (“Strangles”) …
- Tetanus (“Lockjaw”)
How do you prevent influenza in horses?
Prevention of influenza requires hygienic management practices and vaccination. Exposure can be reduced by isolation of newly introduced horses for 2 wk. Numerous vaccines are commercially available for prevention of equine influenza.
Can humans get horse flu?
The risk for EIV infection is not limited to equids; dogs, cats, and humans are susceptible. In addition, equids are at risk from infection with avian influenza viruses, which can increase mortality rates.
Is EHV-1 in the US?
In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of EHV-1 cases, especially EHM, reported in the United States. There have also been several outbreaks of EHM at large horse facilities and events—at racetracks, horse show grounds, veterinary clinics, and boarding stables.
What is the difference between EHV-1 and EHV 4?
The two most significant are EHV-1, which causes respiratory disease, abortion, and neurologic disease; and EHV-4, which primarily causes respiratory disease and only occasionally can cause abortion or neurologic disease.
What shots does a horse need yearly?
Summary. To recap, your horse should at least receive EWT/WN and Rabies vaccinations once a year. In general, we recommend that your horse receive EWT/WN, PHF/Rabies, Strangles, and Flu/Rhino in the Spring, and PHF and Flu/Rhino in the Fall.
What vaccines do horses really need?
Again, ALL horses should receive the core vaccines (rabies, EEE/WEE, tetanus, and West Nile Virus).
Can I ride my horse after vaccination?
How soon can I ride after a vaccination? You should try to reduce stress such as heavy exercise for 24-48 hours after vaccination. This will further reduce the very small chance of an adverse reaction. In most cases very light work such as a short hack can continue uninterrupted.
Do horses need a tetanus shot every year?
Helpful guidelines for equine vaccinations:
Vaccinate once a year against eastern equine encephalomyelitis, western equine encephalomyelitis and West Nile. … Vaccinate annually for tetanus, unless the horse is wounded or undergoes surgery more than six months after receiving the initial tetanus vaccination.