A genetic mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) gene causes PSSM Type 1 (PSSM1). The mutation causes muscle cells to produce glycogen continually. Since it is an autosomal dominant trait, only one copy of the mutation is needed for a horse to be affected.
How serious is PSSM in horses?
This is a serious situation, as it can damage the horse’s kidneys if they become dehydrated. Very young foals with PSSM occasionally show signs of severe muscle pain and weakness. This occurs more often if they have a simultaneous infection such as pneumonia or diarrhea.
What do you feed a horse with PSSM?
These low-starch feeds should be fed with good-quality grass hay or a maximum of 50 percent alfalfa hay. Regular turnout for as much time as possible is critical to successful management of PSSM horses. They do not do well confined to stalls or missing days of exercise.
How common is PSSM in horses?
PSSM is most prevalent in American Quarter Horses and their related breeds (Paint horse, Appaloosa, Appendix Quarter Horse), Draft horse breeds (especially Belgian Draft and Percherons), and Warmblood breeds. The Belgian Draft been shown to have a 36% prevalence of PSSM.
Is PSSM genetic?
Yes. Type 1 PSSM is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Only one parent needs to pass the genetic mutation to its offspring for signs of tying-up to occur.
How do you treat PSSM in horses?
There is no cure for PSSM, but it can often be managed successfully. Approximately 50% of affected horses with PSSM1 show improvement under dietary management alone. Of those that adhere to dietary and exercise management, 90% have few to no episodes of tying-up.
Is PSSM in horses progressive?
The clinical characteristics of PSSM vary between breeds, from muscle pain, cramping and cell damage with exercise, to progressive muscle atrophy. … This mutation results in the accumulation of abnormal complex sugars within skeletal muscle of horses. This form of PSSM is termed Type 1 PSSM.
What are the symptoms of tying up in horses?
Typical signs of tying-up include a horse which becomes stiff, sweats, and is reluctant to move. Researchers have learned a great deal about tying-up—or exertional rhabdomyolysis—in recent years.
What is PSSM positive in horses?
Polysaccharide storage myopathy or PSSM is a muscle disease that occurs primarily in horses with Quarter Horse bloodlines such as Quarter Horses, Paint Horses, and Appaloosas. … The primary clinical sign of this disease is muscle cramping or tying-up; however, clinical signs may vary with different breeds and severity.
What does vitamin E do in horses?
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an important antioxidant for horses. It helps maintain a healthy immune system and supports normal nerve and muscle function. Horses need vitamin E in their diet because they cannot synthesize it endogenously in their body.
What is the 5 panel test for horses?
The Five-Panel Genetic Test
These include hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), glycogen branching enzyme disease (GBED), hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), and malignant hyperthermia (MH).
What Quarter Horse bloodlines carry PSSM?
PSSM is a muscle disease in horses with Quarter Horse bloodlines such as Quarter Horses, American Paint Horses and Appaloosas.
What is horse GBED?
Glycogen branching enzyme deficiency (GBED) is a disorder first recognized by clinicians at the University of Minnesota that causes muscle weakness in Quarter Horse and related breeds. The clinical presentation of this disease is variable. Late term abortion or stillbirth is described for GBED.
What does N PSSM1 mean?
Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM1) is a dominant autosomal hereditary condition that can cause a genetic form of tying-up with muscle damage and inability to move. … Some horses make and store abnormal muscle glycogen and cannot tolerate dietary starches and sugars.
What is the HYPP gene in horses?
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is an inherited disease of the muscle which is caused by a genetic mutation. In affected horses, a point mutation exists in the sodium channel gene (SCN4A) that can be passed on to offspring. HYPP was one of the first genetic disorders to be elucidated in the horse.
Which of the following diseases is only found in the Arabian horse breed?
Cerebellar abiotrophy is a neurological genetic disease found mostly in the Arabian horse breed. There is no way to cure cerebellar abiotrophy and it is not contagious, but there are ways to prevent the spread of it through responsible breeding practices.