“Removal of these test-positive subjects from the population by the beginning of the 1980s resulted in only around 0.5% test-positives; today the incidence is less than 0.01%.” In 2001 testing identified 534 EIA-positive horses, whereas in 2015 only 69 horses of nearly 1.5 million tested were confirmed positive.
How common is EIA?
EIA is much less common today than it was in the 1960’s or 1970’s, but it remains a very dangerous disease. EIAV infection is always reportable, and each state has its own requirements for testing. The risk of infection is increased: In the vicinity of outbreaks.
How is EIA most commonly transmitted to horses?
EIA is a classic blood-borne infection. People have played an important role in EIAv transmission over the years by using blood-contaminated materials on different horses. But the EIAv is most often transmitted between horses in close proximity by large biting insects such as horse flies or deer flies.
How common is Coggins in horses?
This disease remains active, at low levels, within the US horse population. Prior to introduction of routine testing, 3 in every 100 horses were positive for EIA. Since routine testing was introduced in 1973, the numbers have declined to 0.2% of horses testing positive.
How do you prevent EIA in horses?
Prevention is key to stopping the spread of EIA. Use a sterile needle, syringe, and IV set for all injections or treatments. Disinfect dental, tattoo, surgical equipment, lip chains, and bits thoroughly between horses. Remove all debris and blood with soap and water before disinfection.
What are the symptoms of EIA?
The clinical symptoms of EIA are variable and include fever, anorexia, depression, swelling of the underside of the belly and legs, muscle weakness and wasting, jaundice of mucous membranes and infertility. EIA can leave a horse vulnerable to other potentially fatal diseases.
How do you test for EIA?
Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID). Also known as the Coggins test, AGID is the most widely accepted procedure for the diagnosis of EIA. The test detects antibody against the viral p26 antigen (major core protein). It is the only procedure that has been statistically correlated with the presence of EIA virus in blood.
What happens if a horse tests positive for Coggins?
When a horse receives a positive Coggins Test, it is an industry-wide problem. … Also known as swamp fever, malacial fever, and mountain fever, the death rate of infected equidae (horses, ponies, mules and donkeys, and zebras) ranges from 30-70%.
What does EIA do to horses?
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), sometimes called ‘swamp fever’ is an infectious disease that causes acute, chronic or symptomless illness, characterized by fever, anemia, swelling and weight loss in horses, ponies, mules and donkeys.
Is EIA contagious?
There is no vaccine or cure for EIA and infected animals remain contagious for life. Due to the danger to other horses, this is a reportable disease with federal and state regulations in place for infected horses.
How do I know if my horse has Coggins?
The Coggins test checks for Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) antibodies in the horse’s blood. Blood samples must be sent to a state approved laboratory. This test is often needed to take your horse to a show and whenever you transport your horse across state lines.
Is there a cure for Coggins?
Treatment consists of supportive therapy of intravenous fluids and vector control. Infected horses should be promptly isolated. There is no cure for EIA, so prevention is the key to controlling the disease. The Coggins test is a simple blood test that is widely accepted as a way of determining carriers of the disease.
How do you know if a horse needs its teeth floated?
When to Have Your Horse’s Teeth Floated
- Dropping food or general reluctance to eat.
- Difficulty chewing or shifting food to one side of the mouth.
- Bloody saliva or excessive mouth foaming.
- Appetite loss or weight loss.
- Swollen facial tissues, especially in the cheeks.
- Foul breath.
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Is there a vaccine for EIA?
There is no vaccine or treatment for the disease, and it is often difficult to differentiate EIA from other fever-producing diseases, including anthrax, influenza, and equine encephalitis.
Is Coggins contagious?
This disease is not contagious in that horses cannot spread the disease directly from an infected horse to a healthy horse. Equine infectious anemia also may be referred to as swamp fever or horse malaria. If a horse is infected with equine infectious anemia, the disease will destroy its red blood cells.
How do you prevent Coggins in horses?
*Only participate in events that require evidence of a negative Coggins test for every horse entering the event to prevent disease introduction and spread. *Separate horses with fevers, reduced feed intake and/or lethargy from your other horses and contact your veterinarian.