All horses are susceptible to West Nile virus encephalomyelitis, especially if not vaccinated against the disease. Any age horse can be affected, but adults are affected most commonly.
What are the symptoms of West Nile virus in horses?
Most clinically affected horses exhibit general loss of appetite, depression and fever along with neurological signs such as ataxia (stumbling, staggering, wobbly gait, or incoordination) and any combination of the following: circling. hind limb weakness. recumbence or inability to stand.
Can a horse survive West Nile virus?
Horses are humanely euthanized only when the viral infection is so severe they will not be able to recover. For those that survive, a full recovery is likely. About two out of every three horses that become ill will survive.
How long does West Nile virus last in horses?
Many horses will improve within 5 to 7 days of displaying clinical signs, however about 20-30% can exhibit severe neurological deficits for several weeks. In cases of WNV, 33% will die, 50% will fully recover and 17% will have relapse or incomplete recovery. Treatment includes treating a fever if present.
When should a West Nile vaccine be given to horses?
Because of the high mortality associated with West Nile virus, it is recommended that foals born in areas where there is a high risk of exposure to West Nile virus should receive an initial series of three (3) doses of vaccine against West Nile beginning at 3 months of age and at 4- to 6- week intervals.
How does the West Nile virus spread?
West Nile virus is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds.
Can the West Nile virus go away on its own?
Mild signs and symptoms of a West Nile virus infection generally go away on their own. But severe signs and symptoms — such as a severe headache, fever, disorientation or sudden weakness — need immediate attention.
What shots do horses need yearly?
Summary. To recap, your horse should at least receive EWT/WN and Rabies vaccinations once a year. In general, we recommend that your horse receive EWT/WN, PHF/Rabies, Strangles, and Flu/Rhino in the Spring, and PHF and Flu/Rhino in the Fall.
Does West Nile virus have a vaccine?
There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not feel sick. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms. About 1 out of 150 infected people develop a serious, sometimes fatal, illness.
Is West Nile virus contagious?
The West Nile virus is not contagious. It cannot be transmitted from person to person. A person cannot get the virus, for example, from touching or kissing a person who has the disease or from a health-care worker who has treated someone with the disease.
What animals can be infected with West Nile virus?
West Nile virus (WNV) primarily affects birds, but can also be infect bats, horses, cats, dogs, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, domestic rabbits, alligators and humans. How can my animal get West Nile fever? WNV is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito (vector).
What are the symptoms of the West Nile virus in humans?
Symptoms of severe illness include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. Severe illness can occur in people of any age; however, people over 60 years of age are at greater risk.
How do you give a horse a West Nile shot?
Insert the needle (typically a 1.5” needle in an adult horse) perpendicular to the skin, all the way in until the hub contacts the neck. This will ensure the needle will not shift during the injection, and that the vaccine is administered deep into the muscle.
Can horse vaccines cause colic?
Side effects should dissipate within approximately 24 hours of vaccination. If signs persist, consult your veterinarian. Additionally, contact your veterinarian immediately should your horse experience hives, difficulty breathing or colic shortly after vaccination, as it could indicate a more serious vaccine reaction.
How often should a horse be vaccinated for equine influenza?
Annual boosters are required thereafter (must be given within 365 days of previous injection). However, following the Equine Influenza outbreak in 2019, many regulatory bodies and competition centres require that horses have 6 monthly boosters, to reduce the risk of transmission at large events.
What is the most important vaccine your horse should get?
Important Considerations and Conclusions
Again, ALL horses should receive the core vaccines (rabies, EEE/WEE, tetanus, and West Nile Virus). The risk-based vaccines will depend on if your horse travels, your geographic location, breeding status, and other considerations.